EBITDA is an acronym for Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization. At its core, EBITDA is a financial metric designed to give you a clearer picture of a company’s operational performance. How does it do this? By focusing on a company’s profitability and excluding specific non-operating expenses.

Imagine you’re examining the net income of a company. EBITDA essentially allows you to see this income with certain expenses added back—expenses that might not directly relate to the business’s day-to-day operations. By doing so, it offers a more distilled view of a company’s financial health, highlighting its core operational earnings.

## EBITDA Formula

For the EBITDA calculator, the formula to calculate EBITDA is as follows:

\begin{align*} EBITDA &= NI + I + T + D + A \end{align*}Now, let’s dissect the components:

**Net Income (NI):** Think of Net Income as the ultimate profit tally for a company. It’s what remains after all expenses are subtracted from the revenue. In simpler terms, it’s the financial bottom line you find on an income statement.

**Interest (I):** Now, let’s talk about borrowed funds. Interest represents the price a company pays for using borrowed money. Adding interest expenses back to the net income eliminates the impact of the company’s debt. This action allows you to zone in exclusively on how the business performs operationally.

**Taxes (T):** Every company, big or small, has tax obligations. Taxes can significantly influence a company’s net income. By reintroducing taxes to the net income, you’re leveling the playing field, allowing for a clearer perspective on the company’s performance, uninfluenced by its tax commitments.

**Depreciation (D):** All tangible assets, like machinery or office equipment, lose value over time – a phenomenon often due to regular wear and tear. Through depreciation, businesses spread out this diminishing value or cost over the expected lifespan of the asset. It ensures that financial statements account for this gradual value reduction.

**Amortization (A):** Amortization mirrors depreciation but focuses on intangible assets like copyrights or patents. It’s the method you’d use to allocate the cost of an intangible asset over the span of its anticipated useful life.

## Example of Calculating EBITDA

To truly grasp the concept of EBITDA and its calculation, let’s walk through a real-life example featuring a fictitious company named BizCorp.

BizCorp’s Financial Data:

Net Income: $50,000

Interest: $5,000

Taxes: $10,000

Depreciation: $3,000

Amortization: $2,000

The EBITDA formula is rather direct:

\begin{align*} EBITDA &= NI + I + T + D + A \end{align*}Plugging in the numbers for BizCorp, you get:

\begin{align*} EBITDA &= \$50,000 + \$5,000 + \$10,000 + \$3,000 + \$2,000 \\[1em] &= \$70,000 \end{align*}Now, let’s consider a twist. Imagine BizCorp faced a one-off expense of $1,000 resulting from a lawsuit settlement. Since this is an exceptional expense not linked to the core operations, you would typically add it back to get a more accurate EBITDA. This adjustment gives us a revised EBITDA figure of $71,000.

This EBITDA value, be it $70,000 or the adjusted $71,000, illuminates BizCorp’s operational earnings. By stripping away the influences of interest, tax, depreciation, and amortization, you’re presented with a figure that unambiguously showcases the company’s operational profitability and its ability to generate cash through its primary activities.