A 401(k) is an asset value for your financial future. When you put money into a 401(k), you’re essentially investing in a mix of different things like stocks, bonds, and mutual funds.
As long as your account has a positive balance, it has value and can earn you money over time. This money can come from interest, dividends, or capital gains. And if you need cash, you can withdraw some of your investments from your 401(k).
What Is an Asset?
An asset is simply something you own that is valuable and can help you make money. Assets come in all shapes and sizes, from physical things like land and machinery, to intangible things like ideas and intellectual property.
Assets can be classified as either current or non-current. Current assets are things that you expect to turn into cash within a year, like money you have in the bank, inventory you plan to sell, or money people owe you. Non-current assets are things that you don’t plan on selling within a year, like a long-term investment or a piece of property that you plan to use for years.
Obviously, a 401(k) is a non-current asset.
Arguments Against 401(k) as an Asset
Accessing the funds in a 401(k) is not as simple as withdrawing cash from your bank account or selling stocks. If you’re under 59 1/2 and withdraw money from your 401(k), you could face a 10% early withdrawal penalty, in addition to paying taxes on the amount you take out.
But that’s not the only downside to early withdrawals from a 401(k). You could also be forfeiting some or all of your employer’s contributions. Many employers offer matching contributions to their employees’ 401(k) plans, which is a great benefit.
However, these contributions may be conditional and subject to a vesting schedule. This means that you may not fully own your employer’s contributions until you’ve worked for them for a certain amount of time.
Dependence on Employer
Although your 401(k) plan is technically yours, your employer has significant control. They can decide which investment options are available to you. This can be problematic if you’re looking for specific investment choices or want to adjust your investment strategy.
If your employer changes the plan administrator or investment options without your approval, it could negatively impact your retirement savings.
Related Reading: Is a 401k Worth It Anymore in 2023? Pros & Cons
Why, Still, 401(k) Is an Asset?
A 401(k) is an asset because it has value and can be used by anyone with access to it. Essentially, an asset is something that is valuable and can generate income for you, and that you can own or exchange. A 401(k) fits this description perfectly.
When you contribute to a 401(k) plan, a portion of your income is put into a retirement savings account before taxes are taken out. This means that the investments in your account can grow over time, making more income for you.
Your 401(k) account is yours, and you can exchange or transfer it if necessary. For example, if you change jobs, you can transfer your 401(k) account to a new employer’s retirement savings plan or an individual retirement account (IRA).
Therefore, a 401(k) is considered an asset.
Regarding the argument that 401(k)s are not assets because of limited liquidity, it can only be said that 401(k)s are assets with relatively low liquidity, rather than not being assets at all. It is true that 401(k) has a dependence on the employer, but most assets have some level of restrictions. Even stocks have restrictions such as the SEC’s pattern day trader rule.
Additionally, most people do not invest in a 401(k) account to use the funds within a year, so a 401(k) is actually an illiquid, non-current financial asset.